It has become increasingly clear that these radiometric dating techniques agree with each other and as a whole, present a coherent picture in which the Earth was created a very long time ago.
This sample is from The Elements Collection, an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale. Genesis says that Tubal-Cain, seven generations from Adam, was "an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron." Smelted iron artifacts have been identified from around 3000 B. Dalton also noted that in series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with a given weight of the first element can be reduced to small whole numbers (the law of multiple proportions). Dalton's theory of atoms was published by Thomas Thomson in the 3rd edition of his , Sir Edward Thorpe, volume 1, Watts & Co, London, 1914.] Iron compounds are essential to all life. Iron is found in other minerals such as magnetite, which is seen as black sands along beaches.
These whole-rock ages were approximately correct, but a much more precise mathod is now in use.
The strategy now used is to plot an isochron, but to correct for the existence of primordial Sr 87, we plot the ratios (Sr-87)/(Sr-86) versus (Rb-87/Sr-86).
Wiens has a Ph D in Physics, with a minor in Geology.
His Ph D thesis was on isotope ratios in meteorites, including surface exposure dating.