In 1948 a decision was made at the 18th International Geological Congress (IGC) in London that the base of the .However, no decision was made to equate the beginning of the Pleistocene Epoch to the beginning of the Quaternary Period, and indeed the very status of the Quaternary as a period within the geologic time scale had come into question.This is because causality as such is not preserved in the geological record.We may be able to see that event A happened and was followed by event B, but the fact (if it is a fact) that event A caused event B must be established on theoretical grounds, by understanding the relationship between the events of the type in question.In a canyon just outside Kabul, the rocky terrain is strewn with debris symbolizing the troubled past and tenuous future of war-torn Afghanistan.Exploratory cores, drilled decades ago by Soviets probing for minerals, are scattered across a landscape peppered with landmines.Various gatherings of the IGC in the 19th and 20th centuries had agreed to retain both the Tertiary and Quaternary as useful time units, particularly for climatic- and continent-based studies, but a growing number of geologists came to favour dividing the Cenozoic Era into two other periods, the The ICS abandoned the sub-era structure in 2008, deciding instead to formally designate the Quaternary as the uppermost period of the Cenozoic Era, following the aforementioned Paleogene and Neogene periods.
This, of course, means that we are currently experiencing an ice age, since there are continental glaciers on Antarctica and Greenland.
What happens at Aynak could eventually serve as a model for developing Afghanistan's other natural resources, ranging from mineral wealth to reserves of coal and petroleum.
But concerns about the Aynak bidding process have set off a behind-the-scenes scramble among consulting scientists, diplomats and aid agency officials to try to ensure its success.
Less of it has been lost to erosion, and the sediments are not usually altered by rock-forming processes.
Quaternary rocks and sediments, being the most recently laid geologic strata, can be found at or near the surface of the Earth in valleys and on plains, seashores, and even the seafloor.